Fitness exercises

Last Updated on

Fitness exercises are movements, the implementation of which allows the athlete to achieve his goal.

Fitness exercises are designed to implement the following features:

  • A set of muscle mass . Exercise for fitness leads to hypertrophy of muscle fibers, which increases the volume of muscle mass and improves the overall appearance of muscles.
  • Fat burning . Fitness exercises burn calories, and also change the hormonal background, provoking the release of special fat-burning hormones. Training leads to normal metabolism, bring to the maximum fat-burning capabilities of the body.
  • Keeping fit . Fitness exercises improve muscle tone, help maintain physical fitness. They also help men and women who want to enjoy food and not gain excess weight.
  • Improving physical and mental health . Fitness training improves the functioning of all body systems, and also leads to the release of the so-called hormones of happiness – compounds that improve mood on an ongoing basis, increase the athlete’s energy, make the world more colorful and joyful in his sensations.

Exercise Fitness Terminology

Fitness terminology

Important Disclaimer: Different types of fitness include different terminology. It is impossible to cover the whole terminology of fitness within the framework of one article, and therefore we consider the terminology of fitness in its classical sense – a combination of exercises that an athlete performs as part of a gym training.

When performing the exercises, the athlete is faced with the following terminology:

  • Approach – performing a certain number of repetitions in an exercise without rest. Example: an athlete performs 12 pull-ups, after which he jumps off the horizontal bar and rests. These 12 pull-ups within this example are one approach.
  • Repetition – performing one exercise several times within the same approach.
  • Pace – the speed of repetitions in the exercise.
  • Rest (between approaches and exercises) – the time that an athlete spends on recovering from an approach or exercise.
  • Failure – the inability to perform the next repetition in an exercise while maintaining the correct technique.
  • Training cycle – the time during which the athlete performs work on all targets. Example: The training cycle of most amateur athletes is a week. On Monday, the muscles of the chest, biceps and abs are being worked out. On Wednesday, back, triceps and aerobic training. Friday – legs, buttocks and abs. The cycle does not always equal 7 days. You can train without reference to the days of the week, which will lead to the formation of a cycle of 5 or 9 days.
  • Phase exercise . Positive, negative and static phases.
  • “Negatives” is the negative phase of the exercise.

Types of Fitness Exercises

Types of Fitness Exercises

Fitness exercises are divided into two groups:

  1. Power (or anaerobic) exercises – movements that are aimed at increasing muscle mass, changing muscle volumes. Performed without oxygen. Energy is synthesized through anaerobic glycolysis. Strength exercises include movements such as squats, pull-ups, and fitness exercises with a barbell and dumbbells.
  2. Aerobic exercises are movements that are more often used for fat burning, increasing endurance, and toning muscles. The main source of energy is oxygen. Aerobic exercises include running (not sprinting), jumping rope, cycling, swimming.

The division into goals between aerobic and anaerobic exercises is conditional. With the help of anaerobic exercises it is possible to burn fat, with the help of aerobic exercises – to build muscle a little. But to gain muscle mass, it’s much more effective to train in the gym than to run in the morning. For weight loss, a more effective option is low-intensity aerobic exercise.

The maximum efficiency in changing physique can be achieved through a combination of aerobic and anaerobic exercises.

Anaerobic exercises are divided into 2 types:

  • Basic . Exercises that include 2 or more muscle groups. The basic strength exercises include the following movements:
  1. Pull-ups;
  2. Deadlift;
  3. Squats
  4. Sprinting;
  5. Bench press;
  6. Push-ups on the uneven bars;
  7. Draft in an inclination;
  8. Other multi-joint fitness exercises.
  • Isolating . Movements that include no more than one muscle group. The following movements are related to isolation exercises:
  1. Barbell lift for biceps;
  2. Extension of arms with a barbell (dumbbells);
  3. Mahi dumbbells in various positions;
  4. Twisting;
  5. Slopes for the press;
  6. Lifting on socks in the simulator;
  7. Flexion of the wrists with a dumbbell;
  8. Other single joint exercises for fitness.

Benefits of basic exercises :

  • The study of several muscle groups at the same time. Basic exercises grow muscles faster, it takes less time and energy to train than when compiling a program of isolating movements.
  • Basic exercises increase testosterone levels. This is extremely important for a straight athlete (who does not use steroids), because with low testosterone muscle growth is greatly slowed down.
  • Less time is spent on training, which positively affects the functioning of the hormonal system.

Benefits of isolating exercises :

  • Isolating exercises for fitness allow you to work out the muscles individually, adjust the proportions of the figure pointwise. Example: you want to pump up the gluteal muscles without increasing the size of the quadriceps. You can increase the volume of the gluteal muscles with squats and lunges (basic fitness exercises), but they lead to unwanted growth of quadriceps for you. Leaving the leg back in the simulator includes the leg muscles minimally, focusing on the gluteal muscles. You achieve your goal, which cannot be achieved with basic movements.
  • “Drawing” the muscles. The athlete has increased a significant amount of muscle mass with the help of basic movements and wants to improve the shape, “draw” each muscle in more detail. Isolating fitness exercises come to the rescue.
READ  Fitness workout at home

The maximum effect is achieved through a combination of basic and isolating exercises.

Best Fitness Exercises

Best Fitness Exercises

We have put together the best fitness exercises that can change your body in no time. Here is the TOP 10 fitness exercises that you must include in your program.

Fitness Exercise # 1. Easy pace

Easy pace

Purpose: fat burning, toning muscles, improving the body.

Running at a light pace (jogging) is the simplest and most popular physical exercise. To start running training, you do not need to buy additional equipment, there is no need to spend money and time. You can start running even at home – running on the spot is proof of that. Over time, you can master running training at a different level, acquire the necessary equipment, invest time and energy in this hobby. But to begin with, absolutely nothing is needed. This fact destroys any excuses like “I do not have sneakers to start running.”

Running is the best exercise for healing the body, preventing the “diseases of civilization” that are caused by a sedentary lifestyle.

Alternative: swimming, skiing.

Fitness exercise number 2. Squats


Goal: development of the muscles of the legs and buttocks, improving blood circulation in the pelvic organs, increasing testosterone (in men), accelerating muscle growth, creating an attractive feminine figure (in women), improving health.

Squats – the best exercise on the lower body, which includes all the muscles of the lower body, abs, and also loads the muscles of the upper body when doing squats with a barbell or dumbbells.

Squats for men are useful in increasing testosterone levels, which is reflected in increased masculinity, improved well-being, and increased libido. Regular performance of squats prevents the development of diseases in the pelvic organs, among which prostatitis and other problems of the reproductive system can be distinguished.

Squats for women form a figure that all girls dream about. They also have a positive effect on women’s health. At the sight of the result, self-esteem increases, a desire appears to develop not only in creating the figure of your dreams.

Alternatives: Squats with dumbbells, Squats with an expander, Squats with a tape, Squats with loops, Squats without weight.

Fitness Exercise # 3. Pull-ups on the horizontal bar

Pull-ups on the horizontal bar

Goal: development of back muscles, creating a V-shaped figure (for men), increasing the back in width, improving posture, creating a harmonious figure.

Pull-ups for the top of the body are like squats for the bottom. Pull-ups form a V-shaped classic figure in men, which elevates the exercise to the rank of irreplaceable when we talk about men’s training.

Girls also should not forget about pull-ups. The problem is that 90% of women cannot pull up enough times (4-5) with the right technique to conduct a full-fledged workout.

The effect of pull-ups in improving posture and health, in creating a proportional figure is so great that girls need to learn how to pull up with:

  1. Special simulators that compensate for part of the weight. You will find such exercise machines in high-class fitness clubs.
  2. Traction block to the chest (for the head) on a special simulator. The block exercise machine is present in 95% of gyms.
  3. Elastic bands for pull-ups . Compensates for part of the weight. We work on the same principle as special exercise machines in elite fitness clubs. It can be used for training at home or outdoors.

Alternative: pull-ups on the horizontal bar with an elastic band, pull-ups with TRX loops , pull-ups with rubber loops, an expander, pull of the block trainer to the chest (behind the back).

Fitness exercise number 4. Dips


Goal: development of the muscles of the chest, shoulders and triceps, increase in total muscle mass, create a powerful torso, improve the shape of the muscles of the hands.

An underrated exercise that is undeservedly replaced by a bench press. Push-ups on the bars are the most affordable, convenient and effective fitness exercise for the top of the body after pull-ups.

Pushups on the bars allow men to form a powerful torso, strong pectoral muscles, shoulders and triceps.

Girls get beautiful arm muscles, tone the muscles of the chest and shoulders, get rid of sagging skin in these areas. Push-ups on the bars complement pull-ups and squats, and together work out more than 85% of the muscles of the body.

To gain muscle mass, athletes use pull-ups and push-ups with weight. Pancakes cling to the belt for securing weight, which complicate the exercise and significantly accelerate progress.

Alternative: push-ups on the rings (a more effective option, since it includes stabilizer muscles), push-ups in the TRX loops, push-ups from the floor, bench press.

READ  Fitness training in the gym

Fitness Exercise # 5. Hanging straight legs

Hanging straight legs

Purpose: pumping up the muscles of the press, working on the lower abdomen, forming an attractive figure, improving posture.

The leg lift in the hanging complements the previous exercises for fitness by working on the press, the state of which is concerned about the majority of men and women who have started to do fitness. Raising the legs in the hang is the best exercise for the abs, as the emphasis is shifted to the weak point of the abdominal muscles. The work includes the so-called lower press – a place where fat folds appear even in slender girls and men.

If you want to pump up the press quickly – pay attention to this exercise. Standard twisting, the use of any simulators can not be compared with lifting legs in the hang.

Men have the opportunity to pump the desired cubes. Girls – to build a slim and attractive tummy, reduce the waist.

Alternative: raising the knees in the hang (for beginners), lifting the legs in the loops of Beres (accelerate progress due to the emphasis on the abdominal muscles).

Fitness exercise number 6. Deadlift


Goal: gaining total muscle mass, pumping back muscles, strengthening the lower back, pumping up the legs and buttocks, increasing testosterone levels in men.

The sixth exercise, by completing which, you will work out 100% of the muscles. Deadlift is an exercise that involves more than 75% of the muscles. The correct deadlift technique allows you to build a strong lower back, a powerful, healthy back.

Men get an increased level of testosterone from this exercise for fitness – deadlift causes the release of anabolic hormones into the blood due to the study of large layers of muscles. Exercise is useful to complete at the end of a workout specifically for boosting testosterone.

Girls can count on accelerated growth of the buttocks and biceps of the thigh.

Alternative: draft on straight legs (girls are better off replacing the standard version with this one), deadlift with dumbbells, deadlift with rubber loops .

Fitness exercise number 7. Barbell Lunges

Barbell Lunges

Goal: development of the gluteal muscles, pumping muscles, legs, increase muscle mass.

The best basic fitness exercise for pumping the muscles of the legs and buttocks. Not inferior in effectiveness to squats when it comes to women’s fitness. Lunges focus more on the development of the gluteal muscles, due to which lunges can replace squats to achieve some goals.

Men use lunges less often, but from this exercise does not lose its effectiveness. When gaining muscle mass, it is more reasonable to use basic lunges than bending-unbending legs in the simulator.

For men, lunges can give increased levels of testosterone, the study of the legs and buttocks from a new angle.

Alternative: lunges with dumbbells, lunges with an expander, lunges with an elastic band , lunges in Smith’s car.

Fitness exercise number 8. Rope jumping

Rope jumping

Goal: fat burning, toning the muscles, increasing stamina, improving health, working on the functional.

Some fitness exercises are hard to sell. In this regard, they remain underestimated for most athletes. Working with a rope is the most underrated workout in the fitness industry. Jumping rope includes almost all the muscles in the body, starts the hormonal system with increased efficiency, relieves swelling, and leads to a general recovery of the body.

Rope jumping for women is an opportunity to burn fat, reduce waist size, become a slimmer and more attractive girl. The volume of the gluteal muscles increases – due to the large training volume, they come in tone. Against the background of a decrease in body weight, against the background of a figure that has become older, the girl takes on feminine forms.

With the help of high-speed skipping ropes this process can be a little nuts

Men use a jump rope to lose weight, increase endurance, “draw” abs cubes, increase testosterone levels, improve the functioning of the lymphatic system, and improve health.

The effects of the jump rope can be enumerated endlessly. But you can feel them on yourself only if you train regularly and believe in the effectiveness of such a simple projectile.

Alternative: running, interval running, sprinting.

Fitness exercise number 9. Bench press

Bench press

Goal: development of the muscles of the chest, shoulders, triceps. Increase in total body weight.

Basic exercise on the upper body, which in terms of effectiveness is equal to push-ups on uneven bars. The bench press is a less accessible, but no less popular fitness exercise than other variations of push-ups.

It has similar effects with push-ups on the uneven bars. The advantage of the bench press is the ability to adjust the angle of the bench. At an angle of 20-30 degrees, the pectoral muscles develop as aesthetically as possible. The upper chest works more, as a result of which a “sagging breast” does not form due to hypertrophy of the middle and lower part of the chest.

Alternative: bench press of dumbbells, bench press of barbell and dumbbells at an angle, push-ups from the floor, bench press of the expander .

READ  How to accelerate muscle recovery after exercise

Fitness exercise number 10. Inclined rod pull

Inclined rod pull

Goal: to develop back muscles in thickness and width, improve posture, create a proportional figure. Pumping biceps and back deltas.

A basic exercise for the back muscles, which is the perfect complement to pull-ups and deadlifts. The draft of the bar in an inclination is focused on the development of large arrays of back muscles, which increases the total muscle mass.

For women, this fitness exercise is useful for improving the appearance of back muscles, the ability to create a proportional, attractive figure, and improve posture.

The muscles of the back surface of the shoulder, which are underdeveloped in most men and women, are toned. This effect reduces the likelihood of problems with posture, improves the condition of the back muscles, and prevents various clamps.

Men can visually increase the thickness of their backs by building the ideal “hunter’s back” – not only wide (thanks to pull-ups), but also a powerful back with the help of traction in the slope.

Alternative: draft of dumbbells in an inclination, draft of an expander in an inclination.

Fitness exercises for home

Fitness exercises for home

Exercises for fitness at home do not differ from those movements that we have listed above. For effective home training, it is advisable to purchase a bar (or dumbbells) and all the necessary equipment (pancakes, bar stands, bench) for basic training.

Most of us do not have such an opportunity. Exercises for fitness at home are the same movements that are listed above, but in different variations.

Example: a horizontal bar and bars can be bought at home, mounted on a wall and trained for decades. This is a bargain that does not take up a lot of living space. With a barbell, dumbbells, racks and bench things are different. To buy a home gym you need an impressive amount of money. For storage and use – a lot of space.

An alternative is simple, compact, inexpensive exercise machines for the home , with which you can perform similar exercises for fitness.

The fitness exercises you can find in fashion magazines are for the housewives who buy these magazines. They collected 90% of non-working exercises that can be performed for years, and get only 1% of 100% of the possible result.

Remember: most exercises with your own body weight only tone your muscles. They burn very few calories, do not help either in losing weight or in shaping the shape of your dreams. The exception is working with a horizontal bar and bars, as well as some exercises like a bar or push-ups. Various abductions without legs, inclinations, bridges are a waste of time.

Fitness training at home is work with a horizontal bar, bars and simulators that add stress to exercises with your own body weight. The rest of the fitness exercises at home help to keep fit, but not burn fat or improve your body by gaining muscle in the right places.

Fitness exercise. Training programs

Fitness programs

The exercises we talked about above can be combined as follows:

Fitness exercises in the gym. Day number 1

ExerciseThe approachesRepetitionsRest between sets in minutesRest between exercises in minutes
Chin pull-ups51024
Inclined rod pull31224
Lifting barbell for biceps while standing4121,53
Rope jumping51 minute13
Fast pace51 minute13
Hanging legs5121,53

Day number 2

ExerciseThe approachesRepetitionsRest between sets in minutesRest between exercises in minutes
Bench press lying at an angle of 30 degrees51024
Extending arms with a dumbbell standing4121,53
Rope jumping51 minute13
Strap31 minute13
Narrow arms push-ups5813
Pull-ups1To failure

Day number 3

ExerciseThe approachesRepetitionsRest between sets in minutesRest between exercises in minutes
Shoulder Squats52025
Shoulder lunges31224
Straight leg pull31023
Bike51.5 minutes14
Fast pace154
Rope jumping32 minutes13
Running at the pace115 minutes

This program can be changed for training at home:

Home Fitness Exercises

Day number 1

ExerciseThe approachesRepetitionsRest between sets in minutesRest between exercises in minutes
Pull-ups on the horizontal bar51024
Narrow Grip Pushups381,53
Bending arms with an expander standing31213
Bench press with rubber loop31213
Inclined draft with rubber loop31213
Press the front of the expander3121

Day number 2

ExerciseThe approachesRepetitionsRest in minutes between setsRest in minutes between exercises
Rubber loop squats5201,53
Lunges with TRX Loops5121,53
Leaving legs to the side with an expander3fifteen13
Torso extension with a press roller3101,53
Deadlift with rubber hinges5201,53
Rope jumping51 minute13
Running at an easy pace (possible on the street)120 minutes

Comments on the programs:

  • Schemes created for men’s training . Girls need to reduce the load on the upper body, and increase the number of exercises (approaches) to the bottom in order to adapt the program to women’s needs.
  • We select the weight and resistance of the projectile independently . We select the weight based on the ability to do the specified number of sets and reps with this projectile. Do not be discouraged if you fill up the first workouts. Beginners often overestimate their strength when choosing the weight (resistance) of a projectile in their first training session. Keep this in mind.
  • Train the target muscle only when it has stopped hurting and be a source of uncomfortable sensations. If a muscle or muscle group hurts, you don’t need to train it . Fitness exercises only start the process of changing the figure. The changes themselves occur during rest. Muscle pain is a sign of the recovery process , in which training is pointless.
  • Constantly progress. Observe the principle of progression of loads: every 1-4 workouts increase the number of sets or repetitions . Increase projectile weight (resistance), reduce rest. Only in this case can the goals be achieved. Without increasing the load, progress will end 3-4 weeks after the start of training. Load progression is a basic principle when we talk about how to perform fitness exercises.
  • “Get involved” in training gradually. The first workouts should not be too complicated . It is necessary to accustom the body to physical activity, to give the body sufficient, but not excessive stress. If a beginner attacks the fitness exercises too eagerly, after 2-3 weeks the level of cortisol (stress hormone) in his blood rises so much that not only the body, but also the psyche begins to hurt. This ends the training.
Fitness exercises for girls